More on Yoga in the Public Schools
by Mark Movsesian
Originally published on August 9, 2013 by First Things.
Last month, a California state court ruled that including yoga in an elementary school physical education program does not violate the Establishment of Religion Clause of the Constitution. The program was funded by a half-million-dollar grant from the Jois Foundation, a private organization that promotes the form of yoga known as Ashtanga. The court ruled that the Encinitas Union School District had scrubbed religious references from the classes, so that what remained was simply a fitness and stress-reduction program for kids. To use the language of the so-called “endorsement test,” the court concluded that a reasonable observer would not believe the school district had impermissibly endorsed a religion — in this case, Hinduism.
This week, the Oxford University Press blog published an interesting interview with Candy Gunther Brown, an Indiana University religious studies professor who served as an expert witness for the plaintiffs in the case. Brown argues convincingly that Ashtanga yoga is in fact deeply religious. “Ashtanga,” she says, “emphasizes postures and breathing on the premise that these practices will ‘automatically’ lead practitioners to . . . ’become one with God’ . . . ‘whether they want it or not’”:
Although EUSD officials reacted to parent complaints by modifying some practices, EUSD classes always begin with “Opening Sequence” (Surya Namaskara) [a prayer to the sun god] and end with “lotuses” and “resting” (AKA shavasana or “corpse” — which encourages reflection on one’s death to inspire virtuous living), and teach symbolic gestures such as “praying hands” (anjali mudra) and “wisdom gesture” (jnana mudra), which in Ashtanga yoga symbolize union with the divine and instill religious feelings.
It’s quite possible for people, especially kids, to be influenced by these religious messages, she says:
Scientific research shows that practicing yoga can lead to religious transformations. For example, Kristin is a Catholic who started Ashtanga for the stretching; she now prefers Ashtanga’s “eight limbs” to the “Ten Commandments.” Kids who learn yoga in public schools may also be learning religion.
Perhaps Brown overstates the difficulty of separating religious and non-religious elements in yoga; I don’t know. After reading her interview, though, the question I have is this. How could anyone not think that Ashtanga yoga is religious, and that by sponsoring this class — especially with funding from an organization that promotes Ashtanga’s religious message — the school district has endorsed religion in a manner that current law forbids?
Perhaps, with our deeply Protestant religious culture, Americans simply dismiss the notion that physical practices can be genuinely “religious.” Religion is a matter of mind and spirit, not body; stretching is purely physical, just a nice way to relax. Stretching isn’t prayer, after all. Brown’s point, however — and it is a very important one — is that these practices are a kind of prayer. Ashtanga yoga purports to instill religious feelings and lead one to God, whether one intends it or not. (In fact, Hindus might find the claim that yoga is just a stretching exercise rather insulting). And the school district has students participate in these prayers, not just learn about them from a book. The Supreme Court has said the Constitution forbids even displaying the Ten Commandments inside a public school classroom, lest students feel pressured to read and meditate on them. But this is OK?
Let’s try a thought experiment. Orthodox Christianity has a tradition known as hesychasm, in which hermits discipline themselves to meditate, shut out the world, and experience God inside them. It’s a very difficult mystical practice, not for everyone — though some people like to dabble. Apparently it gives great inner peace. The key element is repetition of the Jesus Prayer: “Lord Jesus Christ, Son of God, Have Mercy on Me, a Sinner.” Suppose some enterprising Orthodox Christian foundation adapted these practices, put the Jesus prayer in an esoteric language, and proffered the package to a public school district as a stress-reduction program for kids. Would anyone think such a program constitutional under present law?
The plaintiffs in the case have indicated that they plan to appeal. I hope they do, because this could turn out to be be a very significant case. As Eastern religious practices continue to seep into mainstream culture, situations like this are bound to recur. They may lead to a change in the way Americans understand religion.
Mark L. Movsesian is the Frederick A. Whitney Professor and Director of the Center for Law and Religion at St. John’s University School of Law in Queens, New York.